|COVID-19 Update: The John T. Gorman Foundation is curating a list of resources, emerging best practices, and innovative ideas from across the country to help local organizations serve vulnerable Mainers during the coronavirus outbreak. To access those resources, visit www.jtgfoundation.org/resources/covid-19 or enter Covid-19 in the keyword search. Those results can be further focused by using the “Filter by” menu above to filter by population type (Young Children, Older Youth, Families, and Seniors) or by clicking the following links: childcare, education, food security, housing, rural areas, and workforce.|
The John T. Gorman Foundation strives to be data-driven and results based and seeks to promote information and ideas that advance greater understanding of issues related to our mission and priorities. In our effort to promote these values, we offer these research and best practice resources collected from reputable sources across the country. The library also includes briefs and reports the Foundation has commissioned or supported, a listing of which can be found here.
Pathways to High-Quality Jobs for Young Adults
January 22, 2019 – Older YouthHelping young people prepare to engage in work and life as productive adults is a central challenge for any society. Yet, many young people in the United States—particularly those from low-income or less educated families—find that the path to employment and economic security in adulthood is poorly marked or inaccessible. Using an advanced methodology and longitudinal data, this report examines two main questions:
- The quality of jobs (as measured by wages, benefits, hours, and job satisfaction) held by 29-year-olds who experienced disadvantage in adolescence
- Whether particular employment, education, and training experiences in adolescence and early adulthood predict higher-quality jobs for 29-year-olds from disadvantaged backgrounds
Nation's Progress on Children's Health Coverage Reverses Course
January 22, 2019 – Young ChildrenFor the first time since comparable data was first collected in 2008, the nation’s steady progress in reducing the number of children without health insurance reversed course. The number of uninsured children under age 191 nationwide increased by an estimated 276,000 to about 3.9 million (3,925,000) in 2017, according to newly-available data from the U.S. Census Bureau (Figure 1). The rate of uninsured children ticked upward from the historic low of 4.7 percent in 2016 to 5 percent in 2017 (Figure 2). Both of these changes were large enough to be statistically significant.
Do EITC Expansions Pay for Themselves? Effects on Tax Revenue and Public Assistance Spending
January 22, 2019 – FamiliesThis paper studies how behavioral responses to the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) aect the program's budgetary cost. The EITC encourages labor supply and increases income, thereby reducing public assistance payments to households and increasing taxes paid by households. These sources of revenue reduce the EITC's net cost. We use administrative Internal Revenue Service tax data linked to Current Population Survey data on enrollment in public assistance programs to estimate the EITC's net cost. The evidence from three decades of EITC policy expansions implies that the EITC decreases public assistance received by mothers and increases payroll and sales taxes paid. Our estimates suggest that the EITC has a self-nancing rate of 87 percent, so that the EITC's true cost is only 13 percent of the sticker price. Although the EITC is one of the largest and most important public assistance programs in the U.S., we show that the EITC is actually one of the least expensive anti-poverty programs in the U.S., costing taxpayers about half as much as the school lunch and breakfast programs.
Housing Stability Among First Place-Involved Youth
January 14, 2019 – Older YouthFunded by the John T. Gorman Foundation, the following brief on housing stability of youth experiencing homelessness or with prior experiences of homelessness in Portland, ME is the first in a series of briefs on the experiences of First Place program participants. The Evaluation of the First Place Program examined the experiences of 35 youth who accessed Preble Street’s First Place program between 2015 and 2018. The study included two core components: an implementation study and a qualitative youth study. The implementation study explored how the program was designed, implemented, and modified over time. The descriptive youth study examined youth characteristics and experiences in the following domains: housing, employment, education, risk behaviors, demographic characteristics, and social and emotional well-being. Program participants were interviewed at the time of program enrollment and again 12 months later to capture changes in youth experiences over the program period. In addition, some youth were interviewed 24 – 30 months after baseline to collect detailed information about their housing, employment, and education experiences. These data were supplemented with in-depth case story interviews with three youth several times over the study period (Exhibit 1). *JTGF-funded
Who Was Poor in the United States in 2017?past few years, The Hamilton Project has released an annual report characterizing poverty in America. Describing who is poor is critical for making anti-poverty policy and directly relevant to determining eligibility for means-tested programs. In 2017, 12.3 percent of the population—39.7 million people—lived in poverty, as defined by the official poverty measure . The share of the population living in poverty was statistically significantly lower in 2017 than in 2016 by 0.4 percentage points.
How Secure Is Employment at Older Ages?
January 11, 2019 – SeniorsThis report assesses the precariousness of older adults’ employment. Using a nationally representative longitudinal survey, we follow workers from their early 50s to age 65 and beyond and measure the incidence of involuntary job separations. Our analysis focuses on employer-related separations as opposed to quits driven by poor health, family caregiving responsibilities, or other personal reasons. We tabulate separations caused by layoffs and business closings as well as quits motivated by job dissatisfaction and unexpected retirements. We consider only those separations that have serious financial consequences, leading to long spells of nonwork or substantially reduced earnings. Our results show that slightly more than one-half of adults in their early 50s who are working full time, full year with a long-term employer subsequently experienced an employer-related involuntary job separation. Only 1 in 10 of these involuntarily separated workers ever earned as much after their separation as before. Median household income fell 42 percent following an employerrelated involuntary job separation, and median household income at age 65 for workers who experienced an involuntary separation was 14 percent lower than for those who did not.
Creating an Integrated Efficient Early Care and Education System to Support Children and Families: A State-by-State Analysis
2018 Education Indicators for MaineEducate Maine has issued the 6th installment of this annual report that provides data snapshots of Maine’s education system from early childhood through postsecondary. The data in the report measures access, participation, and performance across the system. No one indicator tells a complete story. Taken together, they do provide the reader a view of what is working well and where we need to invest more time and resources. The John T. Gorman Foundation provided funding for this report. *JTGF-funded
Behavioral Intervention Materials Compendium
From Adolescence to Adulthood: A Blueprint for Helping Maine’s Youth Succeed
July 31, 2018 – Young ChildrenAll young people deserve an equal chance to be healthy, happy, safe, and nurtured as they transition from adolescence to adulthood. Unfortunately, not all young people in Maine have the essential support needed to successfully make this transition and reach their full potential. This report highlights the needs of an all too often hidden and underserved group of Maine’s young people. This group faces unique obstacles in the transition to adulthood because they are homeless or involved in the state’s foster care or juvenile justice systems. The report from the John T. Gorman Foundation also shares some promising approaches underway in Maine that can be scaled up to help all young people succeed in school, at work, and in their relationships. Finally, it recommends how state leaders can act now to create better opportunities for young people and improve the odds that they can contribute to Maine’s future economic and civic success. *JTGF-funded
What is the market price of daycare and preschool?
Retirement, Leisure Activity Engagement, and Cognition Among Older Adults in the United States
May 22, 2018 – SeniorsRetirement is a salient later-life transition that may influence cognition. Leisure activities can help individuals better adjust to life after significant life transitions. This study examined the role of leisure activity engagement in the relationship between retirement and cognition.